Alexander - Issos

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Mosaics – Historic Evolution – Techniques

Reffering to mosaic patterns , we mean the total construction made by lots of small mosaic pieces (tesserae) glued together on a special surface . By this way we create a marvelous pattern in order to design interior/exterior walls and paving.

The art of mosaic , was invented when people used to decorate their floors with natural pebbles. Lots of ancient mosaic can be found in the area of Eastern Mediterranean and especially in the western coasts of Turkey and can be aged approximately on the 8th century B.C. Minoans also used to decorate walls and floors with mosaics and were experts on this art.

Archeologists discovered some very nice pieces which were made in the Greek and Roman ages (3rd -4th Century B.C) . People of the Eastern Mediterranean teach the art of mosaic to the Romans , on the 1st Century B.C and then to the whole Roman Empire. Romans where the first to use mosaics in walls, into caves , which they dedicated to the Muses (Mosaic). One well –known mosaic can be found in Pompeii , which presents the battle of Alexander the Great in Issos.
Mosaic art was also in its top, in Byzantine Empire. Byzantines also created mosaic patterns which they could move from a place to another, as paintings.

 

Materials used for Tesserae

 

• Natural stones ( pebbles, split ,marbles, granites, travertine, semi-precious stones)
• Glass (glass tesserae into a glass-made mosaic pattern , glass tesserae for classic mosaics , tesserae from transparent or colored glass)
• Artificial stones ( ceramic tesserae , artificial granite)

 

Mosaic – Techniques

Basic techniques of mosaic art as following:

  1. Direct construction on the liquid cement
  2. Reverse construction
  3. Construction on the net
  4. Construction on plasticine